In the 1920s, Robert Moses designed a system of parkways surrounding New York City. His designs, which included overpasses too low for public buses, have become an often-cited example of exclusionary design and are argued by biographer Robert A. Caro to represent a purposeful barrier between the city’s Black and Puerto Rican residents and nearby beaches.

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无论摩西的百威项目的细节如何,这是一个特别难忘的设计,政治力量的设计以及选择基于能力和资源可以排除各种群体的方式。越来越感兴趣包容性设计highlights questions of who can participate, and in relation to the web, this has often meant a focus on accessibility and user experience, as well as on questions related to team diversity and governance.

But principles of inclusive design should also play a role early in the design and development process, during content modeling. Modeling defines what content objects consist of and, by extension, who will be able to create them. So if web professionals are interested in inclusion, we need to go beyond asking who can access content and also think about how the design of content can install barriers that make it difficult for some people to participate in creation.



内容模型是用于描述将构成项目,其属性和它们之间可能关系的对象的工具。例如,艺术博物馆的内容模型通常会描述艺术家(包括姓名,国籍和风格或学校的属性),艺术家可以与艺术品,展览等相关联(The content model would also likely include objects like blog posts, but in this article we’re interested in how we model and represent objects that are “out there” in the real world, rather than content objects like articles and quizzes that live natively on websites and in apps.)

设计内容模型时的共同智慧是通过与主题专家和项目利益相关者交谈来外出和研究项目的主题领域。正如Mike Atherton和Carrie Hane描述了这个过程设计连接内容,与知识最多关于主题领域的人(如上面的博物馆示例的艺术)的人交谈有助于揭示“固有”结构,并发现或揭示结构确保您的内容完全和可理解。



镜子方法在许多情况下运作良好,但有时的是主题专家认为固有的结构实际上是悄然排除的偏置系统的产品。喜欢机器学习算法训练过去的学校录取orhiring decisions,现有的结构倾向于为某些人造成伤害他人。内容建模者而不是重建这些结构,而不是重新创建这些结构,也应考虑改进它们的方法。


图1。LinkedIn’s current model for experience includes Company as a required attribute.

These kinds of mismatches between required content attributes and people’s experiences either create explicit barriers (“I can’t participate because I don’t know how to fill in this field”) or increase the labor required to participate (“It’s not obvious what I should put here, so I’ll have to spend time thinking of a workaround”).

Setting as optional fields that might not apply to everyone is one inclusive solution, as is increasing the available options for responses requiring a selection. However, while gender-inclusive choices provide一种包容性的方式来处理表单输入当然也值得关注业务目标,同时通过提供开放的文本输入,允许用户以自己的术语描述自己。

Instead of LinkedIn’s highly prescribed content, for example, Twitter bios’ lack of structure lets people describe themselves in more inclusive ways. Some people use the space to list formal credentials, while others provide alternate forms of identification (e.g., mother, cyclist, or coffee enthusiast) or jokes. Because the content is unstructured, there are fewer expectations about its use, taking pressure off those who don’t have formal credentials and giving more flexibility to those who do.

Browsing the Twitter bios of designers, for example, reveals a range of identification strategies, from listing credentials and affiliations to providing broad descriptions.

Figure 2.Veerle Pieters’s Twitter bio uses credentials, affiliations, and personal interests.
Figure 3.Jason Santa Maria的Twitter Bio使用广泛的描述。
Figure 4.Erik Spiekermann的Twitter Bio使用一个单词。

In addition to considering where structured content might exclude, content modelers should also consider how length guidelines can implicitly create barriers for content creators. In the following section, we look at a project in which we chose to reduce the length of contributor bios as a way to ensure that our content model didn’t leave anyone out.


生活在美国is a performing arts festival scheduled to take place in October 2021 in Bentonville, Arkansas. The goal of the project is to survey the diversity of live performance from across the United States, its territories, and Mexico, and bring together groups of artists that represent distinct local traditions. Groups of performers will come from Alabama, Las Vegas, Detroit, and the border city of El PasoJuárez。来自Albuquerque的贫民表演者计划放在Queer Powwow上。来自波多黎各的表演者将组织一个歌舞表演。

是节日的任务的一个重要组成部分t many of the performers involved aren’t integrated into the world of large art institutions, with their substantial fiscal resources and social connections. Indeed, the project’s purpose is to locate and showcase examples of live performance that fly under curators’ radars and that, as a result of their lack of exposure, reveal what makes different communities truly unique.

As we began to think about content modeling for the festival’s website, these goals had two immediate consequences:

First, the idea of exploring the subject domain of live performance doesn’t exactly work for this project because the experts we might have approached would have told us about a version of the performing arts world that festival organizers were specifically trying to avoid. Experts’ mental models of performers, for example, might include attributes like residencies, fellowships and grants, curricula vitae and awards, artist statements and long, detailed bios. All of these attributes might be perceived as inherent or natural within one, homogenous community—but outside that community they’re not only a sign of misalignment, they represent barriers to participation.


内容modeling for Live in America involved defining what a community is, what a project is, and how these are related. But one of the most interesting challenges we faced was how to model a person—what attributes would stand in for the people that would make the event possible.

It was important that we model participants in a way that preserved and highlighted diversity and also in a way that included everyone—that let everyone take part in their own way and that didn’t overburden some people or ask them to experience undue anxiety or perform extra work to make themselves fit within a model of performance that didn’t match their own.





  • 拜伦F. Albuquerque的Aspaas是“晚餐。Táchii'niinishōtódichii'niibashishchiin。“
  • Danny R.W.西北阿肯色州的Baskin是“巴洛克瀑布,但吃得很好”。
  • Brandi Dobney of New Orleans is “Small boobs, big dreams.”
  • Imani Mixon of Detroit is “best dresser, dream catcher, storyteller.”
  • 波多黎各的ErikaP.Rodríguez是“反殖民主义摄影师。Caribeña。♡冰淇淋。“
  • 大卫·多拉多罗姆·埃尔帕索Juárez is “Fonterizo historian wordsmith saxophonist glossolalian.”
  • Mikayla Whitmore of Las Vegas is “hold the mayo, thank you.”
  • 阿拉巴马州的玛丽·齐诺是“一个倒下的家庭民间诗人”。

Modeling for inclusion#section5

We tend to think of inclusive design in terms of removing barriers to access, but content modeling also has an important role to play in ensuring that the web is a place where there are fewer barriers to creating content, especially for people with diverse and underrepresented backgrounds. This might involve rethinking the use of structured content or asking how length guidelines might create burdens for some people. But regardless of the tactics, designing inclusive content models begins by acknowledging the political work that these models perform and asking whom they include or exclude from participation.


As discussions of inclusive design continue to gain momentum, content modeling should play a role precisely because of the world-building that is core to the process. If we’re building worlds, we should build worlds that let in as many people as possible. To do this, our discussions of content modeling need to include an expanded range of metaphors that go beyond just mirroring what we find in the world. We should also, when needed, filter out structures that are harmful or exclusionary. We should create spaces that ask the same of everyone and that use the generativity of everyone’s responses to create web products that emerge out of more diverse voices.



丹尼尔卡特is an assistant professor in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Texas State University. He works with organizations to design and develop technical systems that align with their values.

Carra Martinez

Carra Martinez is a theatre artist, scholar, community engagement specialist, and educator. Based in Austin, Texas, Martinez is the Director of Live in America at Fusebox Festival, a new field study and festival examining the power and potency of communities in performance. She holds a doctoral degree in Theatre Historiography from the University of Minnesota.


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