设计包容性内容模型

In the 1920s, Robert Moses designed a system of parkways surrounding New York City. His designs, which included overpasses too low for public buses, have become an often-cited example of exclusionary design and are argued by biographer Robert A. Caro to represent a purposeful barrier between the city’s Black and Puerto Rican residents and nearby beaches.

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无论摩西的百威项目的细节如何,这是一个特别难忘的设计,政治力量的设计以及选择基于能力和资源可以排除各种群体的方式。越来越感兴趣包容性设计highlights questions of who can participate, and in relation to the web, this has often meant a focus on accessibility and user experience, as well as on questions related to team diversity and governance.

But principles of inclusive design should also play a role early in the design and development process, during content modeling. Modeling defines what content objects consist of and, by extension, who will be able to create them. So if web professionals are interested in inclusion, we need to go beyond asking who can access content and also think about how the design of content can install barriers that make it difficult for some people to participate in creation.

目前,内容模型主要被视为反映世界上固有结构的镜子。但是,如果世界偏见或排除,这意味着我们的内容模型也将是。相反,我们需要将内容建模方法作为过滤掉有害结构的机会,并创建更多人可以参与制作网络的系统。为包含性设计的内容模型欢迎各种声音,最终可能会增加产品的多样性和达到。

内容模型作为镜子#section2

内容模型是用于描述将构成项目,其属性和它们之间可能关系的对象的工具。例如,艺术博物馆的内容模型通常会描述艺术家(包括姓名,国籍和风格或学校的属性),艺术家可以与艺术品,展览等相关联(The content model would also likely include objects like blog posts, but in this article we’re interested in how we model and represent objects that are “out there” in the real world, rather than content objects like articles and quizzes that live natively on websites and in apps.)

设计内容模型时的共同智慧是通过与主题专家和项目利益相关者交谈来外出和研究项目的主题领域。正如Mike Atherton和Carrie Hane描述了这个过程设计连接内容,与知识最多关于主题领域的人(如上面的博物馆示例的艺术)的人交谈有助于揭示“固有”结构,并发现或揭示结构确保您的内容完全和可理解。

额外的研究可能继续调查项目最终用户如何理解域名,但Atherton和Hane描述了这个阶段,主要是关于术语和细节水平。最终用户可能会使用不同的单词,而不是专家,或关心造福和新表现主义之间的细微区别,但最终,每个人​​都在谈论同样的事情。一个好的内容模型只是一个反映你找到的结构的镜子。

镜子中的裂缝#section3

镜子方法在许多情况下运作良好,但有时的是主题专家认为固有的结构实际上是悄然排除的偏置系统的产品。喜欢机器学习算法训练过去的学校录取orhiring decisions,现有的结构倾向于为某些人造成伤害他人。内容建模者而不是重建这些结构,而不是重新创建这些结构,也应考虑改进它们的方法。

基本示例是LinkedIn选择在创建新工作经验时要求用户指定公司。以这种方式建模经验对于人力资源管理人员,招聘人员以及参与传统职业道路的大多数人来说是显而易见的,但它假设只通过公司获得有价值的经验,并且可能会阻止人们进入其他类型的经验代表替代职业道路和塑造自己的故事。

图1。LinkedIn’s current model for experience includes Company as a required attribute.

These kinds of mismatches between required content attributes and people’s experiences either create explicit barriers (“I can’t participate because I don’t know how to fill in this field”) or increase the labor required to participate (“It’s not obvious what I should put here, so I’ll have to spend time thinking of a workaround”).

Setting as optional fields that might not apply to everyone is one inclusive solution, as is increasing the available options for responses requiring a selection. However, while gender-inclusive choices provide一种包容性的方式来处理表单输入当然也值得关注业务目标,同时通过提供开放的文本输入,允许用户以自己的术语描述自己。

Instead of LinkedIn’s highly prescribed content, for example, Twitter bios’ lack of structure lets people describe themselves in more inclusive ways. Some people use the space to list formal credentials, while others provide alternate forms of identification (e.g., mother, cyclist, or coffee enthusiast) or jokes. Because the content is unstructured, there are fewer expectations about its use, taking pressure off those who don’t have formal credentials and giving more flexibility to those who do.

Browsing the Twitter bios of designers, for example, reveals a range of identification strategies, from listing credentials and affiliations to providing broad descriptions.

Figure 2.Veerle Pieters’s Twitter bio uses credentials, affiliations, and personal interests.
Figure 3.Jason Santa Maria的Twitter Bio使用广泛的描述。
Figure 4.Erik Spiekermann的Twitter Bio使用一个单词。

In addition to considering where structured content might exclude, content modelers should also consider how length guidelines can implicitly create barriers for content creators. In the following section, we look at a project in which we chose to reduce the length of contributor bios as a way to ensure that our content model didn’t leave anyone out.

生活在美国#section4

生活在美国is a performing arts festival scheduled to take place in October 2021 in Bentonville, Arkansas. The goal of the project is to survey the diversity of live performance from across the United States, its territories, and Mexico, and bring together groups of artists that represent distinct local traditions. Groups of performers will come from Alabama, Las Vegas, Detroit, and the border city of El PasoJuárez。来自Albuquerque的贫民表演者计划放在Queer Powwow上。来自波多黎各的表演者将组织一个歌舞表演。

是节日的任务的一个重要组成部分t many of the performers involved aren’t integrated into the world of large art institutions, with their substantial fiscal resources and social connections. Indeed, the project’s purpose is to locate and showcase examples of live performance that fly under curators’ radars and that, as a result of their lack of exposure, reveal what makes different communities truly unique.

As we began to think about content modeling for the festival’s website, these goals had two immediate consequences:

First, the idea of exploring the subject domain of live performance doesn’t exactly work for this project because the experts we might have approached would have told us about a version of the performing arts world that festival organizers were specifically trying to avoid. Experts’ mental models of performers, for example, might include attributes like residencies, fellowships and grants, curricula vitae and awards, artist statements and long, detailed bios. All of these attributes might be perceived as inherent or natural within one, homogenous community—but outside that community they’re not only a sign of misalignment, they represent barriers to participation.

其次,节日参与者的有目的的多样性意味着找到共同的心理模型并非目标。节日组织者希望保留所涉及的社区的多样性,不会将它们整合在一起或显示它们是如何相同的。重要的是,拉斯维加斯人民比阿拉巴马州的人们思考表现不同,并且他们以独特的方式构建了他们的项目和工作关系。

内容modeling for Live in America involved defining what a community is, what a project is, and how these are related. But one of the most interesting challenges we faced was how to model a person—what attributes would stand in for the people that would make the event possible.

It was important that we model participants in a way that preserved and highlighted diversity and also in a way that included everyone—that let everyone take part in their own way and that didn’t overburden some people or ask them to experience undue anxiety or perform extra work to make themselves fit within a model of performance that didn’t match their own.

为生活中的含有包容性内容模型意味着努力思考一个生物会看起来像什么。一些参与者来自制度化的艺术世界,BIOS长期,详细,经常从事复杂和深奥的凭证。其他参与者创造艺术,但没有相同的资源。其他人只是被选中为他们的社区发言的人:作家,厨师,教师和音乐家。

该项目的观点是突出尚未认可的两种表现,并且尚未被认可的人。询问历史上围绕机构认可建立的书面形式只会突出​​节日组织者想要留下的层次结构。

我们第一次提出了限制BIOS到五个字的想法,我们的直接反应是,“我们可以逃脱那个吗?”有些艺术家们是否没有被允许空间列出他们的奖项?这是一个可笑的简单的想法,但它也得到了内容建模的核心:我们如何描述它们是什么?我们提交给我们的内容的格式和限制是什么?我们询问将写内容的人是什么?我们如何配置规则,以便每个人都可以参与?

五个字BIOS将每个人都放在同一个地面上。他们要求每个人都创造新的东西,但也可以易于管理。它们是可比的。他们在小城镇诗人旁边定了着名的艺术家,让他们一起玩。他们以不同的语言,但留出了将人们分开的历史结构。他们也很有趣:

  • 拜伦F. Albuquerque的Aspaas是“晚餐。Táchii'niinishōtódichii'niibashishchiin。“
  • Danny R.W.西北阿肯色州的Baskin是“巴洛克瀑布,但吃得很好”。
  • Brandi Dobney of New Orleans is “Small boobs, big dreams.”
  • Imani Mixon of Detroit is “best dresser, dream catcher, storyteller.”
  • 波多黎各的ErikaP.Rodríguez是“反殖民主义摄影师。Caribeña。♡冰淇淋。“
  • 大卫·多拉多罗姆·埃尔帕索Juárez is “Fonterizo historian wordsmith saxophonist glossolalian.”
  • Mikayla Whitmore of Las Vegas is “hold the mayo, thank you.”
  • 阿拉巴马州的玛丽·齐诺是“一个倒下的家庭民间诗人”。

Modeling for inclusion#section5

We tend to think of inclusive design in terms of removing barriers to access, but content modeling also has an important role to play in ensuring that the web is a place where there are fewer barriers to creating content, especially for people with diverse and underrepresented backgrounds. This might involve rethinking the use of structured content or asking how length guidelines might create burdens for some people. But regardless of the tactics, designing inclusive content models begins by acknowledging the political work that these models perform and asking whom they include or exclude from participation.

毕竟,所有建模都是一个世界的创造。建模者建立了存在的事情以及它们如何彼此相关。他们让一些事情变得不可能,其他事情也很困难。他们让一些人进入并保持别人。喜欢防止公共公共汽车到达海滩的立交桥,排他性模型可以悄然塑造网络的景观,加剧现有的缺乏多样性,并使那些已经投入的人进入的人更难。

As discussions of inclusive design continue to gain momentum, content modeling should play a role precisely because of the world-building that is core to the process. If we’re building worlds, we should build worlds that let in as many people as possible. To do this, our discussions of content modeling need to include an expanded range of metaphors that go beyond just mirroring what we find in the world. We should also, when needed, filter out structures that are harmful or exclusionary. We should create spaces that ask the same of everyone and that use the generativity of everyone’s responses to create web products that emerge out of more diverse voices.

关于作者

丹尼尔卡特

丹尼尔卡特is an assistant professor in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Texas State University. He works with organizations to design and develop technical systems that align with their values.

Carra Martinez

Carra Martinez is a theatre artist, scholar, community engagement specialist, and educator. Based in Austin, Texas, Martinez is the Director of Live in America at Fusebox Festival, a new field study and festival examining the power and potency of communities in performance. She holds a doctoral degree in Theatre Historiography from the University of Minnesota.

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